New frontiers of application design
Communications of the ACM
Table 1 briefly summarizes the past four decades of user interface evolution. While technologies show doubling of capability every few years, it takes more than a decade for a new user interface to become widely deployed. The extra time is required for working out technology bugs, reducing costs, and adapting applications to the new user interfaces. During the current decade speech recognition, position sensing, and eye tracking should be common inputs. In the future, stereographic audio and
... ual output will be coupled with 3D virtual reality information. In addition, heads-up projection displays should allow superposition of information onto the user's environment. There is no Moore's Law for humans. Human evolution is a slow process and society-wide human adaptation takes substantial time. For example, the size and spacing between fingers has been essentially the same for approximately a millennium. Furthermore, humans have a finite and non-increasing capacity that limits the number of concurrent activities they can perform. Human effectiveness is reduced as humans try to multiplex more activities. Frequent interruptions require a refocusing of attention. After each The goal of the merger of ubiquitous and wearable computing should be to provide "the right information to the right person at the right place at the right time." In order for ubiquitous computing to reach its potential, the average person should be able to take advantage of the information on or off the job. Even while at work, many people do not have desks and/or spend a large portion of their time away from a desk. Thus, mobile access is the gateway technology required to make information available at any place and at any time. In addition, the computing system should be aware of the user's context not only to be able to respond in an appropriate manner with respect to the user's cognitive and social state but also to anticipate needs of the user.