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The imported fire ants,Solenopsis invictaandS. richteriwere introduced into the USA between 1918 and 1945. Since that time, they have expanded their USA range to include some 138 million hectares. Their introduction has had significant economic consequences with costs associated with damage and control efforts estimated at 6 billion dollars annually in the USA. The general consensus of entomologists and myrmecologists is that permanent, sustainable control of these ants in the USA will likelydoi:10.1155/2012/821591 fatcat:fcmhjpsr7vdjddgs6tqiq2edgy