From 'the people' to 'the citizen': the emergence of the Edwardian municipal park in Manchester, 1902–1912

2012 Urban History  
ABSTRACT:This article argues that the Edwardian municipal park represents a significant transition from the highly regulated and formal space of the Victorian park. It takes as a case-study Heaton Park in Manchester purchased in late 1901 and suggests that this park represented a transition from a Victorian people's park to an Edwardian citizen's park in which each visitor accessed facilities and amenities appropriate to their individual or group leisure interests. It addresses the comparative
more » ... eglect of the Edwardian park by urban historians and suggests the importance of the emerging concepts of citizenship and social responsibility.
doi:10.1017/s0963926812000673 fatcat:pgcokix575hqlntojffzxgi4je