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Trauma and health: Physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress.
In this chapter we present a psychobiological conceptual framework that accounts for the mounting evidence that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for medical illness. First we describe the human response to stress to provide the context for the ensuing discussion. Then we summarize the extensive literature on the relationship of chronic stress syndrome to medical illness. Next we review the biological alterations associated with chronic PTSD and how these PTSD-relateddoi:10.1037/10723-007 fatcat:ispyjuso65hvpgoocmuixhuw4a