Reductive metabolism of the sanguinarine iminium bond by rat liver preparations
Sanguinarine (SA) is a quaternary benzo [c]phenanthridine alkaloid that is mainly present in the Papaveraceae family. SA has been extensively studied because of its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antihypertensive, antiproliferative and antiplatelet activities. Metabolic studies demonstrated that SA bioavailability is apparently low, and the main pathway of SA metabolism is iminium bond reduction resulting in dihydrosanguinarine (DHSA) formation. Nevertheless, the metabolic enzymes
... e metabolic enzymes involved in SA reduction are still not known in detail. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the rat liver microsomes and cytosolinduced SA iminium bond reduction, and to examine the effects of cytosol reductase inhibitors on the reductive activity. Methods: DHSA formation was quantified by HPLC. The possible enzymes responsible for DHSA formation were examined using selective individual metabolic enzyme inhibitors. Results: When SA was incubated with liver microsomes and cytosol in the absence of NAD(P)H, DHSA, the iminium bond reductive metabolite was formed. The reductase activity of the liver microsomes and cytosol was also enhanced significantly in the presence of NADH. The amount of DHSA formed in the liver cytosol was 4.6-fold higher than in the liver microsomes in the presence of NADH. The reductase activity in the liver cytosol was inhibited by the addition of flavin mononucleotide and/or riboflavin. Inhibition studies indicated that menadione, dicoumarol, quercetin and 7-hydroxycoumarin inhibited rat liver cytosol-mediated DHSA formation in the absence of NADH. However, only menadione and quercetin inhibited rat liver cytosol-mediated DHSA formation in the presence of NADH. Conclusions: These results suggest that the SA iminium bond reduction proceeds via two routes in the liver cytosol. One route is direct non-enzymatic reduction by NAD(P)H, and the other is enzymatic reduction by possible carbonyl and/or quinone reductases in the liver cytosol.