Effects of Contamination by Heavy Metals and Metalloids on Chromosomes, Serum Biochemistry and Histopathology of the Bonylip Barb Fish Near Sepon Gold-Copper Mine, Lao PDR
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The objectives of the present study were to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids in water, sediment and Osteochilus vittatus fish, and to assess chromosome aberrations, serum biochemical changes and histopathological alterations in O. vittatus from the Nam Kok river near the Sepon gold-copper mine, Lao People's Democratic Republic compared with the reference area. The results showed that Fe, Mn and Ni in water, As and Cd in sediment as well as As, Cd, Cr, Mn and Ni in O.
... ittatus muscle samples near the gold-copper mine exceeded standard values. Furthermore, the chromosome assessment in O. vittatus revealed seven types of chromosome aberrations, and the highest total number of chromosome aberrations was a centromere gap. The total number of chromosome aberrations, cell number with chromosome aberrations and percentage of chromosome aberrations in O. vittatus as well as serum liver enzymes between the studied areas were significantly different (p < 0.05). The liver histopathological alterations of the fish near the gold-copper mine revealed atypical cellular structures as nuclear membrane degeneration, rough endoplasmic reticulum disintegration and abnormal cytoplasmic mitochondria. The results of this study suggested that heavy metal and metalloid contaminations from the Sepon gold-copper mine area negatively affect O. vittatus fish in terms of chromosomal defects, serum biochemical changes and liver histopathological appearances.