A Generalized Method for Modeling the Adsorption of Heavy Metals with Machine Learning Algorithms

Noor Hafsa, Sayeed Rushd, Mohammed Al-Yaari, Muhammad Rahman
2020 Water  
Applications of machine learning algorithms (MLAs) to modeling the adsorption efficiencies of different heavy metals have been limited by the adsorbate–adsorbent pair and the selection of specific MLAs. In the current study, adsorption efficiencies of fourteen heavy metal–adsorbent (HM-AD) pairs were modeled with a variety of ML models such as support vector regression with polynomial and radial basis function kernels, random forest (RF), stochastic gradient boosting, and bayesian additive
more » ... ssion tree (BART). The wet experiment-based actual measurements were supplemented with synthetic data samples. The first batch of dry experiments was performed to model the removal efficiency of an HM with a specific AD. The ML modeling was then implemented on the whole dataset to develop a generalized model. A ten-fold cross-validation method was used for the model selection, while the comparative performance of the MLAs was evaluated with statistical metrics comprising Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error, and root-mean-squared-error. The regression tree methods, BART, and RF demonstrated the most robust and optimum performance with 0.96 ⫹ R2 ⫹ 0.99. The current study provides a generalized methodology to implement ML in modeling the efficiency of not only a specific adsorption process but also a group of comparable processes involving multiple HM-AD pairs.
doi:10.3390/w12123490 fatcat:agelmyk6lvfl5adyh2e7m3ynzm