Dopant concentration imaging in crystalline silicon wafers by band-to-band photoluminescence
Journal of Applied Physics
Temperature dependent photoluminescence from porous silicon nanostructures: Quantum confinement and oxide related transitions J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094309 (2011) Photoluminescence of deep defects involving transition metals in Si: New insights from highly enriched 28Si App. Phys. Rev. 2011, 15 (2011 Photoluminescence of deep defects involving transition metals in Si: New insights from highly enriched 28Si J. Appl. Phys. 110, 081301 (2011) Dielectric effects on the optical properties of single
... rties of single silicon nanocrystals J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074312 (2011) Photoluminescence origins of the porous silicon nanowire arrays In this work, we present two techniques for spatially resolved determination of the dopant density in silicon wafers. The first technique is based on measuring the formation rate of iron-acceptor pairs, which is monitored by band-to-band photoluminescence in low injection. This method provides absolute boron concentration images on p-type wafers, even if compensating dopants such as phosphorus are present, without reference to other techniques. The second technique is based on photoluminescence images of unpassivated wafers, where the excess carrier concentration is pinned by a high surface recombination rate. This rapid technique is applicable to either p-or n-type wafers, when the bulk carrier lifetime is much longer than the transit time to the surface. The relative sensitivities and advantages of the two techniques are discussed.