Genome-wide analysis of androgen receptor binding sites in prostate cancer cells
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
The transformation of prostate cancer from an androgen-dependent state to an androgen-independent state is a lethal progression. Alterations in transcriptional programs are the basis of prostate cancer deterioration. The androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, mediates prostate cancer progression by functioning primarily through the ligand-activated transcription of target genes. Therefore, a detailed map of AR-regulated genes and AR genomic binding sites
... required for hormone-naive and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Through the use of chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with direct sequencing, 4,143 AR binding sites were defined in the LNCaP androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line. Using the same method, 2,380 AR binding regions were identified in the LNCaP-AI long-term androgen-deprived cell line. Approximately 8.5% (354/4,143) of the binding regions were mapped to within 2 kb of the transcription start site (TSS) in the LNCaP cells, while ~12.6% (299/2,380) were mapped to within 2 kb of the TSS in the LNCaP-AI cells. In total, the study mapped 2,796 genes in LNCaP cells and 1,854 genes in LNCaP-AI cells. The cell lines shared 789 mutual genes. In addition, gene ontology (GO) analysis of the genes revealed that there was a notable overlap between the GO terms in the LNCaP cells and LNCaP-AI cells. However, GO terms within the biological process domain that were only observed in the LNCaP-AI cells included the reproduction process, death, immune system process, multi-organism process, pigmentation and viral reproduction. The major genes in the different GO terms were TNFAIP8, RTN4, APP and SYNE1. Through analyzing the AR binding sites in the two cell types, the present study aimed to map potential AR-regulated genes, identify their associated transcription factors and provide a new perspective on the biological processes in the development of prostate cancer. The results provided a valuable data set that furthered the understanding of the genome-wide analysis of AR binding sites in prostate cancer cells, which may be exploited for the development of novel prostate cancer therapeutic strategies.