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Nowadays, fingerprint-based biometric recognition systems are becoming increasingly popular. However, in spite of their numerous advantages, biometric capture devices are usually exposed to the public and thus vulnerable to presentation attacks (PAs). Therefore, presentation attack detection (PAD) methods are of utmost importance in order to distinguish between bona fide and attack presentations. Owing to the nearly unlimited possibilities to create new presentation attack instruments (PAIs),doi:10.1049/bme2.12020 fatcat:pi6cewnfpzhybjysskskuzwf6q