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Infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of pain and discomfort, which can lead to abnormal brain development, yielding long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. In this study, we propose a video-based method for automated detection of their discomfort. The infant face is first detected and normalized. A two-phase classification workflow is then employed, where Phase 1 is subject-independent, and Phase 2 is subject-dependent. Phase 1 derives geometric and appearance features,doi:10.1007/s00138-018-0968-1 fatcat:fvvwziw6lnhg7cakhevq6xha4a