Analytical Determination of Heavy Metals in Various Dokha and Shisha Products, and Related Health Implications
Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research
Objective: In this present study twelve metals were analyzed in various Dokha and Shisha products. The analysis was carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). All the metals were found in each sample and at various concentrations. Furthermore, the concentration of various heavy metals with e-cigarette is compared in the discussion. Results: Dokha tobacco contained very high metal concentrations compared to Shisha and Marlboro brand cigarette tobaccos.
... he highest level of aluminum(Al) (421.235 μg/g), boron(B) (219.815 μg/g), Cobalt(Co) (25.050 μg/g), copper(Cu) (24.000 μg/g), lead(Pb) (468.620 μg/g), and zinc(Zn) (342.740 μg/g), were found in Alward Alahmar Green Dokha tobacco. Due to the significant toxicity of these metals, it is very important to control and quantify their concentrations in the tobaccos. 1959, some 400 compounds were known to be present in tobacco leaves and tobacco smoke; today, the figure has risen to more than 4000 . Harmful metals enter the body via food, drinking water, and the air we breathe, or by skin contact. They could accumulate in the liver, kidneys, bones, pancreas, and the central nervous system where they effect the health without being noticed and diagnosed. Heavy metals can cause cancer without ever being implicated in the diagnosis. Heavy metals cause sodium retention leading to high blood pressure. They can also cause heart disease and mental retardation. Everyone is con-taminated with heavy metals, some seriously, without ever knowing it. Nonessential heavy metal ions cause aging in addition to serious diseases and death. People who are otherwise very healthy will have increased aging caused by heavy metal ions cross-linking between normal molecules in the body. These ions are sometimes referred to as free radicals. The cross-linking has been identified in diseases such as hardening of the arteries, skin ailments, carpal tunnel syndrome, degeneration of organs, and nerve damage. When heavy metal poisoning is suspected, it is important to begin the treatment as soon as possible to minimize long-term damage to the patient's nervous system and Figure 1: Concentrations of metals (μg/g tobacco) in various Dokha and Shisha brands. Discussion Dokha Discussion Aluminum: The Al levels in the studied samples ranged from 8.170 µg/g to 421.235 µg/g. The highest concentration was found in the "Alward Alahmar Green Dokha" and the lowest in "Yusuf Redha Dokha-Blue 50". In humans, Al replaces Mg 2 + and Fe 3+ , which causes many disturbances associated with intercellular communication, cellular growth and secretory functions. The greatest complications of aluminum toxicity are neurotoxicity effects such as neuronal atrophy in the locus ceruleus, substantia nigra and striatum. Boron: The concentration of boron varied from sample to another; and its highest concentration was found in "Alward Alahmar Green Dokha" (219.815 µg/g); while the lowest boron concentration was found in "Yusuf Redha Dokha-Gold 50" (3.2155 µg/g). Cadmium: Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic, and is one of the most important heavy metals, when the adverse health effects of smoking are considered. It can cause bone mineralization either through renal dysfunction or bone damage. Inhaling higher levels of cadmium can cause severe damage to the lungs . The analysis showed that "TURBO Dokha Premium-1" contained very high concentration of cadmium (58.460 µg/g) compared to the rest of the studied tobaccos which ranged from 1 µg/g to 5 µg/g. This high content of cadmium classifies the "TURBO Dokha Premium-1" tobacco among other poisoning products. Cobalt: Cobalt is an essential element but at high concentrations, it becomes toxic and mainly effects the central nervous system. In addition, cardiovascular and kidney diseases and lung fibrosis are potential effects of long-term chronic exposure to nickel . Chromium: Moreover, exposure to chromium compounds can result in the formation of ulcers, which will persist for months and heal very slowly. Ulcers on the nasal septum are very common in case of chromate workers. Exposure to higher amounts of chromium compounds in humans can lead to the inhibition of erythrocyte glutathione reeducates, which in turn lowers the capacity to reduce methemoglobin to hemoglobin [19,20]. Iron: Furthermore, a very high level of iron enters the body crossing the rate-limiting absorption step hence becoming saturated. These free irons penetrate cells of the heart, liver, and brain. The free iron can also lead to lipid peroxidation, which results in severe damage to mitochondria, microsomes, and other cellular organelles . In the analyzed samples the Fe concentrations ranged from 20.730 µg/g (Yusuf Redha Dokha-Blue 50) to 654.700 µg/g (TURBO Dokha Premium-1). Lead: Toxicity of lead, also called lead poisoning, can be either acute or chronic. Acute exposure can cause loss of appetite, headache, hypertension, abdominal pain, renal dysfunction, fatigue, sleeplessness, arthritis, hallucinations, and vertigo. Chronic exposure of lead can result in mental retardation, birth defects, psychosis, autism, allergies, dyslexia, weight loss, hyperactivity, paralysis, muscular weakness, brain damage, kidney damage and may even cause death . The Pb levels were high in most of the analyzed samples and the lowest levels were found in "MAZAYA Watermelon Mint Shisha" (5.560 µg/g), and "Al Fakher Double a) B.M.: Structured the idea of the research and helped in the literature review. In addition to going through the final article for publication. b) A.N.: Has written the result and discussion section. In addition to validating the methodology. c) A.B.: Has written the methodology section and underwent the chemical experiment. d) O.A.: Has provided the material for research and written the introduction section. In addition to helping in the literature review.