UTILIZATION OF POMEGRANATE AND ORANGE PEELS TO PREPARE HEALTHY CAKES
Agricultural by-products originated from food processing factories represented one of the permanent environmental problems. New trends were raised to utilize these valuable wastes full of nutraceuticals and phytochemicals. Pomegranate (PPP) and orange peels (OPP) were used in the current study to assess their beneficial effects. The counts of microorganism were determined and found in the safe permitted level in food.Afterward peels were directed to prepare bakery products.Pomegranate peel
... megranate peel contained iron, zinc, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and sodium at levels of 12. 75, 5.9, 202.7, 135.8, 45.46, 66.38 and 38.91 mg/100g dry matter, respectively. Orange peel valued 19.5, 6.7, 635.8, 785.9, 91.4, 57.55 and 32.34 mg/100g dry matter, respectively. Pomegranate peel contained vitamins B 1 and D 3 at levels of 0.014 g/Kg and 0.023 MIU/kg, respectively. While, in orange peel were 0.027 g/kg and 0.019 MIU/kg, respectively. Pomegranate peel had total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents of 19.7%, 5.8% and 13.9%, respectively. Whereas, orange peel registered 33.9%, 6.5% and 27.4%, respectively. GC/MS analysis of orange peel showed the existence of Dihydrocarvone (30.25%) and 4',6-Dimethoxyisoflavone-7-O-β-Dglucopyranoside (20.83%). Phloroglucinol (28.52%), (S)-(-)-Citronellic acid (14.24%) werethe bioactive compounds. Sensory evaluation for overall acceptability showed that non-significant difference existed between T1 (Control); T2 (10%PPP) and T5 (10%OPP).The chemical composition of the resulting cake showed that by increasing the substitution levels of either PPP or OPP, the ash and dietary fiber content increased, the available carbohydrate and fat content decreased and the protein content was not affected compared to the control without addition. The decrease in caloric values ranged between 404.34-420.59 kcal/100 g compared to 453.66 kcal/100 g for the control sample. It was found that by increasing the replacement ratios, the texture properties were affected and the microbial content of the resulting cake samples decreased, which gives an indication of the possibility of increasing the preservation period. The results indicated that PPP and OPP by-products can serve as a good source of bioactive components. It could be recommended that incorporation of the mentioned raw material with wheat flour 72% extraction to obtain healthy bakery productshave high biological value.