An Overview of Signal Processing Techniques for Remote Health Monitoring Using Impulse Radio UWB Transceiver
Non-invasive remote health monitoring plays a vital role in epidemiological situations such as SARS outbreak (2003), MERS (2015) and the recently ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 because it is extremely risky to get close to the patient due to the spread of contagious infections. Non-invasive monitoring is also extremely necessary in situations where it is difficult to use complicated wired connections, such as ECG monitoring for infants, burn victims or during rescue missions when people are
... during building collapses/earthquakes. Due to the unique characteristics such as higher penetration capabilities, extremely precise ranging, low power requirement, low cost, simple hardware and robustness to multipath interferences, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) technology is appropriate for non-invasive medical applications. IR-UWB sensors detect the macro as well as micro movement inside the human body due to its fine range resolution. The two vital signs, i.e., respiration rate and heart rate, can be measured by IR-UWB radar by measuring the change in the magnitude of signal due to displacement caused by human lungs, heart during respiration and heart beating. This paper reviews recent advances in IR- UWB radar sensor design for healthcare, such as vital signs measurements of a stationary human, vitals of a non-stationary human, vital signs of people in a vehicle, through the wall vitals measurement, neonate's health monitoring, fall detection, sleep monitoring and medical imaging. Although we have covered many topics related to health monitoring using IR-UWB, this paper is mainly focused on signal processing techniques for measurement of vital signs, i.e., respiration and heart rate monitoring.