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Physical Review E
In the last three decades, researchers have tried to identify universal patterns in the structure of food webs. It was recently proposed that the exponent characterizing the efficiency of the transport of energy in large and small food webs might have a universal value ͑ = 1.13͒. In this work we establish lower and upper bounds for this exponent in a general spanning tree with a fixed number of trophic species and levels. When the number of species is large, the lower and upper bounds are equaldoi:10.1103/physreve.73.041903 pmid:16711832 fatcat:6otgua5rirhcxb6lylqqx7ooiu