VARIATIONS OF MUSCLE PLANTARIS: ANATOMICAL AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
English

Jayasree K, Ashalatha P R, Smitha Nair S, Jenish Joy
2016 Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences  
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Plantaris is a small fusiform muscle with a long tendon, in the superficial group of flexors of the posterior compartment of leg. Though considered as a vestigial muscle, plantaris is of much importance both from anatomical and clinical point of view, at the same time commanding interest from a phylogenetic perspective also. The muscle is known to present several anatomical variations with respect to its occurrence, origin, course, relations and insertion. It may be absent,
more » ... It may be absent, unilaterally or bilaterally, though a double occurrence has been rarely reported. The aim of the study is to document the variations in the origin and insertion of planta ris, prevalence of agenesis and the occurrence of accessory plantaris. STUDY SETTINGS AND DESIGN A cadaveric study was conducted on human plantaris muscle in the MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty lower limbs from twenty five cadavers were dissected and plantaris muscles studied in detail, noting the variations in attachments, and agenesis/accessory plantaris if any. The observations were documented and analysed. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Of the fifty lower limbs studied, agenesis of plantaris was observed in 4 limbs (8%) and accessory plantaris or biceps plantaris in 3 limbs (6%). In the other 43 lower limbs, the pattern of origin belonged to Type 1 in 10 limbs (23.26%), Type 2 in 7 limbs (16.28%), Type 3 in 20 limbs (46.51%) and Type 5 in 6 limbs (13.95%) and the pattern of insertion belonged to Type 1 in 17 limbs (39.53%), Type 3 in 6 limbs (13.95%) and Type 5 in 20 limbs (46.51%), according to the classification followed in the study. CONCLUSION The anatomical variations of the muscle plantaris and its agenesis/accessory occurrence have significant clinical implications. Considering the relevance of the muscle in the diagnosis of undefined leg pain, use of the tendon in reconstructive surgeries, the importance of the knowledge about the possible variations for the physiotherapists, sports medicine specialists, anthropologists and so on makes the results of the study noteworthy.
doi:10.14260/jemds/2016/652 fatcat:2x4j3v5n6rgvfetk36e5aiw4yy