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The performance of timer algorithms is crucial to many network protocol implementations that use timers for failure recovery and rate control. Conventional algorithms to implement an Operating System timer module take O O O(n n n) time to start or maintain a timer, where n n n is the number of outstanding timers: this is expensive for large n n n. This paper shows that by using a circular buffer or timing wheel, it takes O O O(1) time to start, stop, and maintain timers within the range of thedoi:10.1109/90.650142 fatcat:nzgyolwjsnfvnhpowpxts5butu