Development tendencies of forms of organization of physical education in Europe in the Middle Ages
Slobožansʹkij Naukovo-Sportivnij Vìsnik
Тенденції розвитку форм організації фізичного виховання в країнах Європи в Середні віки
Purpose: identify and analyze trends in the development of forms of organization of physical education in Europe in the Middle Ages. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific literature, descriptive method, method of system analysis. Results: examined the main trends of formation and development of forms of organization of physical education in Europe in the Middle Ages. Conclusions: the main forms of physical education and forms of leisure activities, as well
... s factors that directly affect their development are revealed during researches. In particular, the content and organization of physical education were differentiated by belonging to a social level of society, and forms of physical education were stipulate by the characteristics of economic and cultural development, geographical conditions, traditions and lifestyle. Introduction. Physical training in Ukraine is directed on physical and spiritual improvement of a person, mastering by him the systematized knowledge, physical exercises and ways, their independent performance during the whole life. At the same time physical training provides a transfer of motive experience from the senior generation to the younger. It is clear that the richer and more various it, the more effective the modern system of physical training has to be  . Therefore, the search of new forms of physical training in the present even returns more often in the past which experience remains insufficiently studied and sometimes underestimated  . Physical culture of the Middle Ages, despite of all difficulties and difficulties of the development, meant a certain advance in comparison with the slaveholding society. It was caused, first of all, by that people's mass starts participating actively in the development of physical exercises and games, creating quite often the distinctive systems of physical training in the conditions of the Middle Ages. And the humanity and reformation of Renaissance defined the subsequent improvement of an educational system and its component -physical training  . Therefore, the identification of tendencies of the development of forms of the organization of physical training of the countries of Europe in the Middle Ages will allow to add and rationalize a strategy of pedagogical management of sports formation of the younger generation. Communication of the research with scientific programs plans, subjects. The researches are executed according to a subject of the Built plan of the research work in the sphere of physical culture and sport for 2011-2015 of the Ministry of Ukraine for family, youth and sport, by a subject 3.1 "The improvement of programmatically-standard principles of physical training in educational institutions" (No. of the state registration is 0111U001733). The objective of the research: to find and analyze tendencies of the development of forms of the organization of physical training in the countries of Europe in the Middle Ages. Research tasks: 1. To systematize the data on the development of physical training of the countries of Europe in the Middle Ages according to references. 2. To define the main forms of the organization of physical training in the countries of Europe in the Middle Ages. 3. To find the tendencies of the development of forms of the organization of physical training in the countries of Europe in the Middle Ages and factors which influenced it. Material and methods of the research: analysis and generalization of scientifically methodical literature and Internet; chronological method; descriptive method; method of the system analysis. Results of the research and their discussion. The modern historical science uses the term "middle ages" concerning the period of social development since the end of the V century till the XVII century when the defining role was played by feudalism in the most developed countries of the world . It is visible from literature that they came not in at one time in different parts of the world to feudal forms of physical training. So, traditions played a major role in different regions, in particular, India, China, Japan but other where the development went gradually. Here they didn't refuse old forms of physical training, and only they altered them. However transformations of a slaveholding formation were followed by the considerable changes in the huge territory of the former Roman Empire, predetermined by influence of the countries conquerors and countries which stand above in the cultural development. So, the Byzantine Empire and the Golden Horde had a considerable impact on physical culture in the Russian principalities, on Hungarians and Poles -the German knightly awards, on a number of the people of the countries of Europe -Turkey, and on Japanese -Chinese  . Considering the history of physical culture of countries of Western Europe, it is necessary to consider physical culture of the period of the formation of feudalism (the XV cent.), the feudalism blossoming (the XI-XV cent.), and the action of feudalism (the XV-XVII cent.). The theological doctrine of the medieval Christian church was played the huge negative role on the subsequent development of physical culture in Western Europe at the first stage. The consequence of it was that classes by physical culture were cancelled; hygienic education is removed on a background in pedagogical institutions which worked under the direct management of the Christian church. This doctrine struck to oblivion the antique principles of education and didn't consider children's and awkward age for a long time. It considered children as little adults; it didn't realize a role of the childish outdoor games which are necessary for the development of the personality, moreover, considered them a source of the sin which is distracting from reflections.  .