Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children with Hemoglobinopathies

Javid Gaziev, Simone Marziali, Katia Paciaroni, Antonella Isgrò, Francesca Di Giuliano, Giorgia Rossi, Marco Marziali, Gioia De Angelis, Cecilia Alfieri, Michela Ribersani, Marco Andreani, Maria Giuseppina Palmieri (+5 others)
2017 Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation  
A B S T R A C T Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a serious adverse event associated with calcineurin inhibitors used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We compared the incidence of PRES in children with thalassemia (n = 222, 1.4 to 17.8 years old) versus sickle cell disease (SCD; n = 59, 2 to 17 years old) who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA-matched siblings or alternative donors and analyzed the risk factors for PRES. Overall, 31
more » ... . Overall, 31 children developed calcineurin inhibitor-related PRES (11%), including 30 patients with seizures and 1 patient without seizures. PRES incidence was significantly higher in SCD patients (22%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10% to 32%) than in thalassemia patients (8%; 95% CI, 5% to 12%;P = .002). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with PRES were hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 5.87; 95% CI, 2.57 to 13.43; P = .0001), SCD (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.25 to 4.99; P = .009), and acute GVHD (HR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06 to 4.85; P = .031). In the entire cohort overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in patients without versus with PRES (90% versus 77%; P = .02). In a subgroup analysis that including matched sibling transplants, OS and disease-free survival (DFS) were similar in thalassemia patients without PRES (92% and 88%, respectively) and with PRES (82% and 73%, respectively), whereas SCD patients with PRES had significantly lower OS (67%) and DFS (67%) than patients without PRES (94% and 94%, respectively; P = .008). Thus, SCD patients had a significantly higher incidence of PRES than thalassemia patients, and hypertension and GVHD were the 2 main risk factors for PRES in patients with hemoglobinopathies. Although PRES did not significantly influence survival in patients with thalassemia, patients with SCD had significantly lower survival after PRES.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.05.033 pmid:28602890 fatcat:twnw6irs6vgb5bzxc47gfz632i