Bedeutung des p53-Signalwegs für Apoptoseaktivierung und Zellzyklusarrestregulation durch das p14 ARF Tumorsuppressorgen
BH3-only proteins, a pro-apoptotic subgroup of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, are central mediators of apoptosis signals by regulating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. We have recently shown, that apoptosis triggered by the p14ARF tumour suppressor protein is mediated by the p53-dependent activation of the BH3-only protein Puma/Bbc3. Nevertheless, expression of p14ARF in p53-family deficient cells is capable of inducing both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but the signalling pathways initiated
... pathways initiated remain elusive. Here, we report that the BH3-only protein Bmf (Bcl-2 modifying factor) is involved in cell death in p53-deficient cells triggered by p14ARF. Expression of p14ARF leads to the induction of the PERK kinase, subsequent phosphorylation of eIF2α and activation of transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP. This signalling cascade is usually part of the 'unfolded protein response' (UPR), which is activated upon ER stress to reduce the amount of misfolded proteins by reduction of global protein translation initiation and upregulation of chaperones. Of note, p14ARF does not induce ER stress but activates the PERK‒CHOP pathway. ATF4 and CHOP transcription factors directly bind to the promotor region of bmf and induce its transcription. These data suggest that the PERK‒eIF2α‒ATF4‒CHOP signalling pathway may play a substantial role in mediating p14ARF-triggered apoptosis. This pathway could play the role of a 'fail-safe' mechanism that allows cells, even after loss of p53, to undergo apoptosis induced by upregulation of p14ARF by oncogenes.