A 920 km optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place [thesis]

Katharina Predehl
With residual uncertainties at the 10^-18 level, modern atomic frequency standards constitute extremely precise measurement devices. Besides frequency and time metrology, they provide valuable tools to investigate the validity of Einstein's theory of general relativity, to test a possible time variation of the fundamental constants, and to verify predictions of quantum electrodynamics. Furthermore, applications as diverse as geodesy, satellite navigation, and very long base-line interferometry
more » ... ine interferometry may benefit from steadily improving precision of both microwave and optical atomic clocks. Clocks ticking at optical frequencies slice time into much finer intervals than microwave clocks and thus provide increased stability. It is expected that this will result in a redefinition of the second in the International System of Units (SI). However, any frequency measurement is based on a comparison to a second, ideally more precise frequency. A single clock, as highly developed as it may be, is useless if it is not accessible for applications. Unfortunately, the most precise optical clocks or frequency standards can not be readily transported. Hence, in order to link the increasing number of world-wide precision laboratories engaged in state-of-the-art optical frequency standards, a suitable infrastructure is of crucial importance. Today, the stabilities of current satellite based dissemination techniques using global satellite navigation systems (such as GPS, GLONASS) or two way satellite time and frequency transfer reach an uncertainty level of 10^-15 after one day of comparison . While this is sufficient for the comparison of most microwave clock systems, the exploitation of the full potential of optical clocks requires more advanced techniques. This work demonstrates that the transmission of an optical carrier phase via telecommunication fiber links can provide a highly accurate means for clock comparisons reaching continental scales: Two 920 km long fibers are used to connect MPQ (Max-Planck- Institut für Quantenoptik, Gar [...]
doi:10.5282/edoc.15021 fatcat:oafz7cn5yfcwpkeyukr65egwzy