Electronic control in injection-ignition systems in propulsion of non-road mobile machinery [unknown]

Łukasz Warguła, Piotr Krawiec, Konrad Jan Waluś, Jakub Polasik
Propulsion of non-road mobile machinery dedicated for the waste wood chipping these are mainly internal combustion engines. Their construction mainly affects the efficiency of wood chipping processes. Liberal homologation regulations for combustion engines used by non-road mobile machinery lead not only to relatively high emissions of harmful exhaust gases but also do not force manufacturers to develop these types of machinery. These propulsions are not equipped with systems, structure and
more » ... structure and subassemblies that are characteristic of today's construction used in passenger cars that are highly efficient with low emissions to the environment. This article presents the most modern review of ignition-injection control systems to be used in spark-ignition internal combustion engines intended for the drive of non-mobile machinery. With a review of the fifty-seven manufacturers of this type of engine conducted in January 2017, only six offer engines with injection systems. Collected data of control systems referring to motor vehicles has shown that the constructions offered by manufacturers as innovative are constructions still significantly different from modern standards. In addition, the available systems for modernization of the systems and research projects were analysed. The results of the analysis will be the basis for modifying existing structures. Municipal Office in Gliwice 2017]. Literature as the main directions for increasing the efficiency of the process of chipping wood waste is system of automation or modification of existing equipment [Dias et al. 2015, Adamchuk et al. 2016]. For this purpose, research is carried out on existing construction, which significantly contributes to the efficiency of these devices [Przybylko 2013, Velazquez-Marti and Fernandez-Gonzalez 2010, Stassen 2015]. Various machine parts are examined in various aspects. Among published research concerning the effectiveness of exploitation a research that should be mentioned about was conducted in 2006 by Naimi, Sokhansanj, Mani, Hoque, Bi, Womac, Narayan [Naimi et al. 2006] who reviewed the construction of available on the market chippers as well as their energy consumption. Other scientists who analysed these constructions in 2010 were Nati and Spinelli [Nati and Spinelli 2010] and Nati, Spinelli and Fabbri [Nati et al. 2010] who checked real working conditions of chippers and the influence of wood species on process effectiveness. A year later (2011) Spinelli, Magagnotti, Paletto and Preti [Spinelli 2011] presented the result of research of the influence of wood characteristics such as: its species, humidity and parts of processed tree on the quality of chipped product and fuel consumption. The research conducted contributed to designing more effective constructions of working units. Another direction of improving the efficiency of these processes is the modification of the chipping wood machine drive. Mobile wood chippers are most often equipped with internal combustion engines. These engine are subject to technical and technical specifications of the European [Journal of Laws from 2014] relating to non-road mobile machines. These provisions concern emissions limits for toxic exhaust gases and 2019 will be tightened in accordance with Directive 2016/1628/EU [European Parliament and of the Council 2016]. These regulations, despite the exacerbation, will still be much more liberal than the regulations on passenger vehicles. This allows manufacturers of non-road machines to sell old construction technology. Modern electronic fuel injection systems in automotive vehicles with spark ignition engines almost completely suppressed fuel supply systems using carburettors. This has contributed to the exploitation aspects, i.e. the introduced emissions limits for toxic exhaust gases and the economics of exploitation: fuel consumption, serviceability and durability of the system. Much more liberal emission regulations for toxic gas emissions in non-road mobile machines lead to widespread use by manufacturers of carburettors. The review of offered on the market engines for non-road mobile machinery in January 2017 shows that only 11% of spark ignition engines are equipped with electronic injection systems. It is common practice for manufacturers to integrate the injection system with the ignition system, due to the duplication of signals from sensors used in process control. The advantages of using electronic ignition systems are: lower fuel consumption, less toxic compounds in the exhaust gases, improved combustion efficiency, increased power and torque of the engine, improved dynamic response to changing working conditions, reduced control and maintenance, Emergency Re-
doi:10.21008/j.2449-920x.2018.70.1.06 fatcat:jfmel2ujxvbwnglgbssakv7vwe