Rhinitis: differential diagnosis and treatment principles
Rhinitis is inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. The clinical symptoms of this disease include nasal congestion, sneezing, itching of the nose and roof of mouth, rhinorrhea, and mucus draining down the back of the throat. Both allergic and non-allergic factors can play a role in the development of rhinitis. The most commonly used classification of rhinitis includes allergic rhinitis, non-allergic rhinitis, infectious rhinitis, and its specific forms. Allergic rhinitis is
... ed into the intermittent or persistent types, and may also be classified as mild, moderate and severe according to the severity of symptoms. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes elimination of contact with allergen, allergen-specific immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy, which is selected depending on the severity of the symptoms. Infectious rhinitis develops in acute viral infection, and rhinitis symptoms are present in acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. Non-allergic rhinitis comprises conditions ranging from vasomotor rhinitis and gustatory rhinitis to non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome. Mixed rhinitis has components of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. In addition, there are CPAP rhinitis, occupational rhinitis, medication rhinitis, rhinitis in systemic administration of drugs, rhinitis of pregnant women, atrophic rhinitis, rhinitis in systemic diseases. The type of rhinitis is diagnosed based on the patient's complaints, anamnesis and clinical picture, some cases require laboratory tests and CT scan of the paranasal sinuses to differentiate the diagnosis. Approaches to the treatment of rhinitis depend on its type and include elimination of allergens or provoking factors, administration of saline solutions, intranasal glucocorticosteroids, systemic antihistamines, intranasal cromones, decongestants, antibacterial drugs may be prescribed to treat infectious rhinitis. Rhinitis should be differentiated from structural abnormalities, including congenital features, acquired conditions, neoplasms, gastroesophageal reflux, nasal liquorrhea.