The Cytotoxic Effect of Oral Wet Wipes on Gingival Cells
Journal of dental hygiene science
Wet wipes are being increasingly used because of their convenience. Particularly, oral wet wipes are useful for regular cleaning of a baby's mouth after birth. Therefore, the consumption of oral wet wipes has increased over the past few years and a variety of products are commercially available. However, product information on safety is not sufficiently provided and still raises doubts regarding adverse effects. To confirm the safety of wet wipes as an oral hygiene item and provide information
... rovide information for their use, we investigated the cytotoxicity of oral wet wipes and verified the underlying mechanism. The anti-bacterial effect of oral wet wipes was analyzed using the disk diffusion method. The cytotoxic effects of oral wet wipes were observed based on morphological changes using microscopy and determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Evaluation of apoptosis by oral wet wipes was explored using propidium iodide flow cytometric analysis and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Apoptosis-related molecules were also analyzed using western blotting. Five types of oral wet wipes were tested, and two products from Fisher-Price and Dr. Kennedy revealed strong cytotoxic effects on gingiva epithelial cells and gingiva fibroblasts, although they also showed intense anti-bacterial effects on oral bacteria. Cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis were observed based on treatment of extracts from Fisher-Price and Dr. KENNEDY. Relatively high TUNEL levels, reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 expression, and fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were also elucidated. These results suggest that commercial oral wet wipes could exert cytotoxic influences on oral tissue, although there are anti-bacterial effects, and careful attention is required, especially for infants and toddlers.