Why Is There Philosophy in India?
Journal of the American Oriental Society
5] Many Indologists are deeply concerned to show that there is such a thing as Indian rational philosophy. They are upset by the fact that most people in the modern Western world, including philosophers, do not expect to find such a thing in ancient India. India, common knowledge teaches, is a land of spirituality and wisdom, but not of hardheaded analysis and serious debate. This common knowledge dates to before the beginning of our era, and it is unlikely that it will disappear any time soon.
... pear any time soon. This common knowledge is wrong, as Indologists know. India has had a long tradition of rational debate, linked to systematic attempts to make sense of the world and our place in it. For a long time different systems of philosophy existed side by side, and during much of this time their adherents made major efforts to show that only their own system was right, and that the others were wrong or incoherent. The result of this ongoing debate was that many thinkers tried to improve their own systems, and in the process refined and developed them. At the same time the art of debate and of proof received ample attention, and logic underwent a long development which scholars are still engaged in unraveling. 1