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Co-phase separation of RNAs and RNA-binding proteins is thought to drive the biogenesis of ribonucleoprotein granules. RNAs can also undergo phase transitions in the absence of proteins. However, the physicochemical driving forces of protein-free RNA-driven phase transitions remain unclear. Here, we report that RNAs of various types undergo phase transitions with system-specific lower critical solution temperatures. This entropically-driven phase behavior requires Mg2+ions and is an intrinsicdoi:10.1101/2022.10.17.512593 fatcat:tcdbhcuyojd3fd3tnsratahqhu