Decreasing Cervical Cancer Mortality in Mexico: Effect of Papanicolaou Coverage, Birthrate, and the Importance of Diagnostic Validity of Cytology

E. Lazcano-Ponce, L. S. Palacio-Mejia, B. Allen-Leigh, E. Yunes-Diaz, P. Alonso, R. Schiavon, M. Hernandez-Avila
2008 Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention  
The reduction in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries has been attributed to wellorganized, population-based prevention and control programs that incorporate screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. In Mexico, there has been a decrease in cervical cancer mortality, but it is unclear what factors have prompted this reduction. Methods: Using data from national indicators, we determined the correlation between cervical cancer mortality rates and Pap coverage, birthrate, and gross
more » ... tional product, using a linear regression model. We determined relative risk of dying of cervical cancer according to place of residence (rural/urban, region) using a Poisson model. We also estimated Pap smear coverage using national survey data and evaluated the validity and reproducibility of Pap smear diagnosis. Results: An increase in Pap coverage (b = À0.069) and a decrease in birthrate (b = 0.054) correlate with decreasing cervical cancer mortality in Mexico. Self-reported Pap smear rates in the last 12 months vary from 27.4% to 48.1%. Women who live in the central (relative risk, 1.04) and especially the southern (relative risk, 1.47) parts of Mexico have a greater relative risk of dying of cervical cancer than those who live in the north. There is a high incidence of false negatives in cervical cytology laboratories in Mexico; the percentage of false negatives varies from 3.33% to 53.13%. Conclusions: The decrease in cervical cancer mortality observed in Mexico is proportional to increasing Pap coverage and decreasing birthrate. Accreditation of cervical cytology laboratories is needed to improve diagnostic precision. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(10):2808 -17) Materials and Methods Different methodologic strategies were used to evaluate the effect of the national cervical cancer screening program in Mexico: a linear regression model, a Poisson model, analysis of national survey data, and a study on cytologic diagnostic validity and reproducibility.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.epi-07-2659 pmid:18843027 fatcat:4eaj757xlrcfpcti5abhzwlpcy