Genotyping by Sequencing Reveals Genetic Relatedness of Southwestern U.S. Blue Maize Landraces
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maize has played a key role in the sustenance and cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the southwestern USA for many centuries. Blue maize is an important component of the diverse landraces still cultivated in the region but the degree to which they are related is unknown. This research was designed to ascertain the genotypic, morphological, and phenotypic diversity of six representative southwestern blue maize landraces. Their genotypic diversity was examined using tunable
... quencing (tGBSTM). A total of 81038 high quality SNPs were identified and obtained through tGBS. A total of 45 morphological and biochemical traits were evaluated at two locations in New Mexico. The varieties Los Lunas High and Flor del Rio were genetically less related with other southwestern landraces whereas diffusion between Navajo Blue, Hopi Blue, Yoeme Blue, and Taos Blue demonstrated that these landraces were genetically related. Phenotypic variability was highest for kernel traits and least for plant traits. Plant, ear, and kernel traits were fairly consistent within and across locations. Principal component analysis and tGBS showed that Corn Belt variety 'Ohio Blue' was distinctly different from southwestern landraces. Genotypic analysis displayed that southwestern landraces are genetically closely related, but selection has resulted in differing phenotypes. This study has provided additional insight into the genetic relatedness of southwestern blue maize landraces.