Precision and Personalized Medicine: How Genomic Approach Improves the Management of Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Disease
Life expectancy has gradually grown over the last century. This has deeply affected healthcare costs, since the growth of an aging population is correlated to the increasing burden of chronic diseases. This represents the interesting challenge of how to manage patients with chronic diseases in order to improve health care budgets. Effective primary prevention could represent a promising route. To this end, precision, together with personalized medicine, are useful instruments in order to
... in order to investigate pathological processes before the appearance of clinical symptoms and to guide physicians to choose a targeted therapy to manage the patient. Cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases represent suitable models for taking full advantage of precision medicine technologies applied to all stages of disease development. The availability of high technology incorporating artificial intelligence and advancement progress made in the field of biomedical research have been substantial to understand how genes, epigenetic modifications, aging, nutrition, drugs, microbiome and other environmental factors can impact health and chronic disorders. The aim of the present review is to address how precision and personalized medicine can bring greater clarity to the clinical and biological complexity of these types of disorders associated with high mortality, involving tremendous health care costs, by describing in detail the methods that can be applied. This might offer precious tools for preventive strategies and possible clues on the evolution of the disease and could help in predicting morbidity, mortality and detecting chronic disease indicators much earlier in the disease course. This, of course, will have a major effect on both improving the quality of care and quality of life of the patients and reducing time efforts and healthcare costs.