Current crowding in nanoscale superconductors within the Ginzburg-Landau model [article]

Mattias Jönsson, Robert Vedin, Samuel Gyger, James A. Sutton, Stephan Steinhauer, Val Zwiller, Mats Wallin, Jack Lidmar
The current density in a superconductor with turnarounds or constrictions is non-uniform due to a geometrical current crowding effect. This effect reduces the critical current in the superconducting structure compared to a straight segment and is of importance when designing superconducting devices. We investigate the current crowding effect in numerical simulations within the generalized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GTDGL) model. The results are validated experimentally by measuring the
more » ... etic field dependence of the critical current in superconducting nanowire structures, similar to those employed in single-photon detector devices. Comparing the results with London theory, we conclude that the reduction in critical current is significantly smaller in the GTDGL model. This difference is attributed to the current redistribution effect, which reduces the current density in weak points of the superconductor and counteracts the current crowding effect. We numerically investigate the effect of fill factor on the critical current in a meander and conclude that the reduction of critical current is low enough to justify fill factors higher than $33\,\%$ for applications where detection efficiency is critical. Finally, we propose a novel meander design which can combine high fill factor and low current crowding.
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2112.05443 fatcat:z655sb62xzf3xeveu2klzfiltm