PERSPECTIVE URINARY BIOMARKERS ACCORDING TO PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN PRETERM-BORN CHILDREN
Neonatology surgery and perinatal medicine
Technologies for nursing preterm-born babies have evolved significantly in recent years. However, we still have several unresolved issues, among which acute kidney injury remains one of the most urgent. This pathological clinical syndrome is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in premature infants with severe perinatal pathology. Arrester diagnosis is based on the classification proposed in 2012 by the International Expert Group - Kidney Disease: Improving Global
... tcomes. The main criteria for verifying the diagnosis of acute renal injury are an increase in serum creatinine levels and a decrease in urine output. The problem of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute renal failure in prematurely born children occupies a leading place, because it is still no consensus on the possibilities of using specific biomarkers of kidney damage, and no nomograms are taking into account the gestational age at birth, body weight and the severity of perinatal pathology.Plasma creatinine is still the most commonly used marker of impaired filtration function, but in recent years there have been numerous scientific discussions and new, highly sensitive, and highly specific markers of renal injury. In particular, it was proposed to consider functional biomarkers and markers of tubular damage as separate categories, since impaired renal function and the injury itself can coexist independently, simultaneously, or a transition of categories is observed. Plasma cystatin C, urinary and serum fractions of alpha-1-microglobulin and beta-2-microglobulin, lipocalin associated with neutrophil gelatinase, and others are promising biomarkers. Attention is focused on the importance of the epigenetic concept in the formation of kidney damage, blocking of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone-antidiuretic hormone system, and the role of transient receptor potential channels in the modulation of basic renal functions. Metabolic urine profiles are widely studied taking into account gestational age and body weight.