Indices to assess patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in clinical trials, long-term observational studies, and clinical care
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
This review summarises most currently used indices to assess and monitor patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in clinical trials, long-term observational studies, and clinical care. Six SLE disease activity indices include the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG), European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM), Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), Lupus Activity Index (LAI), and Systemic Lupus
... ematosus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ). Three SLE responder indices include Responder Index for Lupus Erythematosus (RIFLE), SLE Responder Index (SRI), and BILAG Based Combined Lupus Assessment (BICLA). Three SLE damage indices include the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index (SLICC/ACE-DI), Lupus Damage Index Questionnaire (LDIQ), and Brief Index of Lupus Damage (BILD). The SLAQ, LDIQ and the BILD are patient self-report questionnaires, which appear to give similar information to physician-completed indices, but are pragmatically more easily completed as patients do almost all the work. Additional self-report indices which have been used to assess and monitor patients with in SLE include a generic general health short form 36 (SF36), a SLE-specific Lupus Patient Reported Outcome (LupusPRO), and a generic rheumatology index, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3). These activity, response, damage and patient self-report indices have been validated at different levels with no consensus about what it is the most appropriate for every setting. Sensitive and feasible assessment of SLE in clinical trials, observational studies, and busy clinical settings remains a challenge to the rheumatology community.