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Submerged breakwaters are considered to be preferable countermeasures against beach erosion where the availability of sediments for nourishment is limited and tourism is prevalent because submerged breakwaters do not interfere with the view of the horizon from the shore. However, sandy beaches protected by submerged breakwaters are assumed to be vulnerable to relative sea level rise (SLR) and land subsidence because the crests of submerged breakwaters are below sea level. Kuriyama and Bannodoi:10.9753/icce.v36.structures.62 fatcat:3gagvwrx6fbk7e6wfmlg72i6ty