Proposed New Pathophysiology of Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

In-Chang Cho, Seung Ki Min
2015 Urogenital Tract Infection  
The most common type of prostatitis is category III, also known as chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The current National Institutes of Health definition of CP/CPPS includes genitourinary pain with or without voiding symptoms in the absence of uropathogenic bacteria, as detected by standard microbiological methods, or other identifiable causes such as malignancy. Many different etiologies and mechanisms of pathogenesis of CP/CPPS have been proposed with a suggested
more » ... for immunological, neurological, endocrine, and psychological factors. We examined the data supporting the role of each of these areas and also examined the possible interrelationship of these factors in producing the symptoms of CP/CPPS. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. The gate control theory provides a neurologic basis for the influence of both somatic and psychological factors on pain. Acceptance of chronic pain as a diagnosis may be difficult for the clinician and patient, however it is an important concept in the care of CP/CPPS, which enables the use of pain-directed therapies. Management of CP/CPPS will remain challenging; however, this review provides a better understanding of the condition and improved management strategies based on the newest evidence and concepts available.
doi:10.14777/uti.2015.10.2.92 fatcat:mna37tc4ljarrf23zdk4o2ia64