Clinical and epidemiological features of heart-hand syndrome, an updated analysis in China
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Background The purpose of this study was to prospectively recruit patients treated with limb malformation and to explore the prevalence and the clinical and epidemiological features of Heart-Hand Syndrome (HHS) in China. Methods The consecutive patients treated for congenital upper limb malformation in Beijing Ji Shui Tan Hospital from October 1st, 2016 to October 1st, 2019 were prospectively recruited. We reviewed the patients' medical records and identified patients with abnormal
... gram (ECG) and/or abnormal ultrasonic cardiogram as well as their basic demographic and clinical characteristics. Results A total 1653 (1053 male and 600 female) patients with congenital upper extremity malformations were prospectively recruited. Among them, 200 (12.1%) had abnormal ultrasonic cardiogram (181patients, 10.9%) and/or abnormal ECG (19 patients, 1.1%). The commonest type of abnormal heart structure was atrial septal defect (69/181 38.1%), and the commonest abnormal ECG was wave patterns (7/19, 36.8%). HHS patients had a higher comorbidity rate (11%) than non-HHS patients (6.9%). Patients with HHS were classified into four groups by the types of congenital upper extremity malformations, among which the most common group was thumb type (121/200, 60.5%). Conclusions HHS occurred frequently among patients with congenital upper extremity malformation in China, particularly for those with multiple congenital malformations. The commonest type of hand malformations of HHS patients was thumb malformation.