Interfacial oxygen and nitrogen induced dipole formation and vacancy passivation for increased effective work functions in TiN/HfO2 gate stacks

C. L. Hinkle, R. V. Galatage, R. A. Chapman, E. M. Vogel, H. N. Alshareef, C. Freeman, E. Wimmer, H. Niimi, A. Li-Fatou, J. B. Shaw, J. J. Chambers
2010 Applied Physics Letters  
doi:10.1063/1.3353993 fatcat:tp4nstkptjhatjnyekkdwle4ye