A copy of this work was available on the public web and has been preserved in the Wayback Machine. The capture dates from 2022; you can also visit <a rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/pdf/2202.02121v2.pdf">the original URL</a>. The file type is <code>application/pdf</code>.
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Thermoelectric effects in metals are typically small due to the nearly-perfect particle-hole (PH) symmetry around their Fermi surface [1, 2]. Despite being initially considered paradoxical , thermophase effects [4-8] and linear thermoelectricity  in superconducting systems were identified only when PH symmetry is explicitly broken [10-14]. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that a superconducting tunnel junction can develop a very large bipolar thermoelectric effect in the presence of a<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2202.02121v2">arXiv:2202.02121v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/f234vp64cvb73oyo5na3wobcbe">fatcat:f234vp64cvb73oyo5na3wobcbe</a> </span>
more »... onlinear thermal gradient thanks to spontaneous PH symmetry breaking . Our junctions show a maximum thermovoltage of ±150 μ V at ±650 mK, directly proportional to the superconducting gap. Notably, the corresponding Seebeck coefficient of ±300 μV/K is roughly 10^5 times larger than the one expected for a normal metal at the same temperature [16, 17]. Moreover, by integrating our junctions into a Josephson interferometer, we realize a bipolar thermoelectric Josephson engine (BTJE)  with phase-coherent thermopower control . When connected to a generic load, the BTJE generates a phase-tunable electric power up to about 140 mW/m^2 at subKelvin temperatures. In addition, our device implements the prototype for a persistent thermoelectric memory cell, written or erased by current injection . We expect that our findings will trigger thermoelectricity in PH symmetric systems, and will lead to a number of groundbreaking applications in superconducting electronics , cutting-edge quantum technologies [22-24] and sensing .
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