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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/itfdykb35fau5p3czj6vfuce3a" style="color: black;">Surveillance & Society</a>
Using a methodology that inserts the current controversy over NSA surveillance into its historical context, this essay traces the origins of U.S. internal security back to America's emergence as a global power circa 1898. In the succeeding century, Washington's information infrastructure advanced through three technological regimes: first, the manual during the Philippine War (1898–1907); next, the computerized in the Vietnam War (1963–75); and, recently, the robotic in Afghanistan and Iraq<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.24908/ss.v13i1.5161">doi:10.24908/ss.v13i1.5161</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ymctbh5535fxxfawpf6r4zdsse">fatcat:ymctbh5535fxxfawpf6r4zdsse</a> </span>
more »... 1–14). While these military missions have skirted defeat if not disaster, the information infrastructure, as if driven by some in-built engineering, has advanced to higher levels of data management and coercive capacity. With costs for conventional military occupations now becoming prohibitive, the U.S. will likely deploy, circa 2020, its evolving robotic regime—with a triple-canopy aerospace shield, advanced cyberwarfare, and digital surveillance—to envelop the earth in an electronic grid capable of blinding entire armies on the battlefield or atomizing a single insurgent in field or favela.
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