Heparanase Uptake Is Mediated by Cell Membrane Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Heparanase is a mammalian endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate (HS) at specific intrachain sites, an activity that is strongly implicated in cell dissemination associated with metastasis and inflammation. In addition to its structural role in extracellular matrix assembly and integrity, HS sequesters a multitude of polypeptides that reside in the extracellular matrix as a reservoir. A variety of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes can be released by heparanase activity
... paranase activity and profoundly affect cell and tissue function. Thus, heparanase bioavailability, accessibility, and activity should be kept tightly regulated. We provide evidence that HS is not only a substrate for, but also a regulator of, heparanase. Addition of heparin or xylosides to cell cultures resulted in a pronounced accumulation of, heparanase in the culture medium, whereas sodium chlorate had no such effect. Moreover, cellular uptake of heparanase was markedly reduced in HS-deficient CHO-745 mutant cells, heparan sulfate proteoglycan-deficient HT-29 colon cancer cells, and heparinasetreated cells. We also studied the heparanase biosynthetic route and found that the half-life of the active enzyme is ϳ30 h. This and previous localization studies suggest that heparanase resides in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment for a relatively long period of time and is likely to play a role in the normal turnover of HS. Co-localization studies and cell fractionation following heparanase addition have identified syndecan family members as candidate molecules responsible for heparanase uptake, providing an efficient mechanism that limits extracellular accumulation and function of heparanase.