Volume 3 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS The Role of Evection in Optical Measurements of Light Beam Deflection from the Sun's Disk (the Einstein Effect)

Sergey Shapovalov
1922 unpublished
The relationship between the optical results of light beam deflection from the disk of the Sun (δϕ) obtained during observations of the total solar eclipses, from 1919 till 1973, and the evection, the major perturbation from the Sun, based on the theory of the Moon's motion, is analysed. The dependence of δϕ upon the temporal changes of the evection was found. The expected δϕ optical results for the total solar eclipses, for the period from 22.09.2003 till 29.12.2103, were calculated. Based on
more » ... lculated. Based on the comparison of calculated evection values with fluctuations of intensity of solar radiation within 603-607 nm range obtained through the spectral observations on solar radiation in Antarctica, the modulatory role of the evection in deflecting the light beam at the near-Earth space was concluded. Optical measurements of the star beam deflection from the Sun disk were performed by a number of researchers during the total solar eclipses, from 29.05.1919 till 30.06.1973, with the purpose of checking the δϕ angle value (1.75 ′′) obtained by Einstein, following his development of the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) [1]. In case the radio measurements only are considered in the practical estimates of the Einstein effect, δϕ values match with the theory within 1% range [2]. For example, an average value of 1.73 ′′ (±0.07 ′′) was obtained in radar measurements of Mercury, Venus and Mars, whereas measurements of quasars and pulsars using radio interferom-etry produced an estimate of 1.76 ′′ (±0.08). Deflection of the beam from the Sun disk is described by the equation: δϕ = − 4GM ⊙ R ⊙ c 2 , (1) where the "minus" sign corresponds to the deflection of the beam to the center of the Sun; G = 6.67 × 10 −11 H × m 2 /kg 2 is the gravitational constant; M ⊙ = 1.99 × 10 30 kg is the mass of the Sun; c = 3 × 10 8 m/s is the speed of light; R ⊙ = 6.96 × 10 8 m is the radius of the Sun. Based on the optical observations of the eight total solar eclipses, the author's average result together with a confidence interval of measurements makes δϕ = 1.83 ± 0.40, and the recalculated measurement result is δϕ = 2.0±0.13, which, in view of the low accuracy and the considerable spread of measurements, is consistent with the GTR. According to the published data [3-10], the results of δϕ optical measurements for the total solar eclipses observed from 1919 till 1973 were as follows: