MALIGNANCY IN THYROID NODULES- A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences
BACKGROUND Thyroid cancer is a relatively uncommon malignancy accounting for less than 1% of all new malignancies. It is a slowly progressing disease and has an overall favourable outcome with only 9% of patients dying from it. The relatively indolent nature of thyroid malignancy is generally ascribed to the innocuous biological behaviour that is characteristic of these neoplasms. Among the various types of thyroid cancers, papillary carcinoma is the most common form followed by follicular and
... by follicular and medullary carcinoma. Of all the thyroid carcinomas, papillary carcinoma has better prognosis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually assumes an aggressive course and is rapidly lethal, carrying the poorest prognosis of all. Most patients present with a palpable swelling in the neck which initiates assessment through a combination of history, physical examination, and FNA biopsy. RESULTS The mean age of thyroid malignancy was 35.46 years with a female preponderance. 70% of the patients had papillary carcinoma followed by follicular carcinoma in 24%, Hurthle cell variant in 4% and lymphoma in the rest. Most of the cases (56%) had presented with solitary thyroid nodule and a history of duration between one to two years in 17 patients. Cervical lymph node enlargement was found in 17.14% of patients with papillary carcinoma. CONCLUSION Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine neoplasm which can occur most commonly between age groups of 21-65 years. Women are frequently affected. Usual mode of presentation is solitary thyroid enlargement with papillary carcinoma as the common type. Lymphatic spread is common with papillary carcinomas.