Integration of Biological Clocks and Rhythms [entry]

Roberto Refinetti
2012 Comprehensive Physiology   unpublished
Animals, plants, and microorganisms exhibit numerous biological rhythms that are generated by numerous biological clocks. This article summarizes experimental data pertinent to the oftenignored issue of integration of multiple rhythms. Five contexts of integration are discussed: (i) integration of circadian rhythms of multiple processes within an individual organism, (ii) integration of biological rhythms operating in different time scales (such as tidal, daily, and seasonal), (iii) integration
more » ... , (iii) integration of rhythms across multiple species, (iv) integration of rhythms of different members of a species, and (v) integration of rhythmicity and physiological homeostasis. Understanding of these multiple rhythmic interactions is an important first step in the eventual thorough understanding of how organisms arrange their vital functions temporally within and without their bodies.
doi:10.1002/cphy.c100088 pmid:23798299 fatcat:s5tqrbxn2rdc5g7647fld4b5oe