Abstracts from the 24th Annual Meeting of the European Chemoreception Research Organization (ECRO 2014), Dijon, France, September 10-13th, 2014

2015 Chemical Senses  
Much progress has been made recently in understanding how neural networks accomplish olfactory coding. The time is ripe to pull these results into a proposed connectivity network. Here, I will propose a wiring diagram for the major steps from peripheral processing all the way to behavioral readout, using insects as models. The major players are the antennal lobe (first processing network), the mushroom bodies (most complex brain structure, crucial for learning) and the lateral protocerebrum
more » ... taining the premotor control areas). Processing steps include a sequence of: (1) lateral inhibition in the antennal lobe, (2) nonlinear synapses, (3) threshold-regulating gated spring network, (4) selective lateral inhibitory networks across glomeruli, (5) feed-forward inhibition to the lateral protocerebrum. These cover most of the experimental results from different research groups and model species Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/40/3/211/614502 by guest on Olfactory cues play an important role in regulation of complex forms of social behavior including sexual behavior in mammals. A number of studies demonstrated a direct involvement of accessory olfactory system in regulation of male sexual Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/40/3/211/614502 by guest on An important issue in olfaction research is to relate brain activity to physico-chemistry of stimuli and perception. We present here a brain imaging study aimed at relating neural activity in human olfactory cortex and chemical space of odorants on the one hand and perceptual space of odors on the other hand. By combining Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis and fMRI, we found distinct spatial activity patterns in piriform cortex (PC) as a function of chemical and perceptual similarity: whereas anterior PC activity significantly correlated with similarity in odorant physicochemical features, posterior PC activity significantly correlated with olfactory perceptual similarity (i.e. odor intensity, familiarity, pleasantness and edibility). Such effects were not observed in human amygdala. Rather, spatial activity of this area was significantly correlated with trigeminal perceptual similarity (i.e. irritation, coolness, warmth and pungency). Combined with previous works, these findings strengthen the notion of segregated neural representations for chemical space and perceptual space of odors. Eating is of central importance to our lives. This is why different fields, like medicine, psychology, sociology, but also the public exhibit a strong interest in "taste". Understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms has become more and more complete; however, especially with regard to the central-nervous processing of taste, several aspects remain unclear. In this Symposium we aim to discuss recent results obtained with neuroimaging and electrophysiological research on human gustation. Specific highlights include laterality, taste-mechanosensory integration, age dependency of the taste perception as well as taste dysfunction and the new ways of its investigation. Coding schemes throughout the gustatory system will be critically discussed. Information will include speed of perception, the value of using behaving animals and responses to the "primary" tastants and water. Taste, olfactory and food texture reward processing in the brain and the control of appetite The focus of this talk is to elucidate recent advances in human gustatory pathways with respect to the laterality of the gustatory responses. Psychophysical and neuroimaging studies will be examined. 6 models and their experimental evidences will be discussed trying to highlight the common traceable clues. Detection of odorants occurs in the olfactory sensory epithelium in the nasal cavity. Here in the ciliary membrane of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons, odorant molecules bind to odorant receptor proteins triggering the olfactory Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/40/3/211/614502 by guest on Odor stimulation evokes complex spatiotemporal activity in the olfactory bulb, suggesting that the identity of activated neurons as well as the timing of their activity convey information about odors. However, whether and how downstream neurons decipher these temporal patterns remains debated. We addressed this question by measuring the spiking activity of downstream Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/40/3/211/614502 by guest on Plants under herbivore attack release volatile signals that attract parasitoids. Herbivores in turn avoid such plants, because of the higher risk of parasitization. Which volatiles herbivores use, and how deterrence is coded, are unknown. Here we demonstrate that in Spodoptera littoralis induced cotton volatiles suppressed orientation to host plants as well as to mates perched on these. We then found a surprising convergence. The homoterpene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene The causal relationship between olfactory sensing and food intake is obvious: olfaction plays an important role in food Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/40/3/211/614502 by guest on
doi:10.1093/chemse/bju073 fatcat:tcf6foce2ve6zn77aqjzywelcm