Differential Mapping of the Amino Acids Mediating Agonist and Antagonist Coordination with the Human Thromboxane A2Receptor Protein
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Despite the well documented involvement of thromboxane A 2 receptor (TPR) signaling in the pathogenesis of thrombotic diseases, there are currently no rationally designed antagonists available for clinical use. To a large extent, this derives from a lack of knowledge regarding the topography of the TPR ligand binding pocket. On this basis, the purpose of the current study was to identify the specific amino acid residues in the TPR protein that regulate ligand coordination and binding. The sites
... binding. The sites selected for mutation reside within or in close proximity to a region we previously defined as a TPR ligand binding region (i.e. the C terminus of the second extracellular loop and the leading edge of the fifth transmembrane domain). Mutation of these residues caused varying effects on the TPR-ligand coordination process. Specifically, the D193A, D193Q, and D193R mutants lost SQ29,548 (antagonist) binding and exhibited a dramatically reduced calcium response, which could not be restored by elevated U46619 (agonist) doses. The F184Y mutant lost SQ29,548 binding and exhibited a reduced calcium response (which could be restored by elevated U46619); and the T186A and S191T mutants lost SQ29,548 binding and retained a normal U46619-induced calcium response. Furthermore, these last three mutants also revealed a divergence in the binding of two structurally different antagonists, SQ29,548 and BM13.505. Two separate mutants that exhibited SQ29,548 binding yielded either a normal (F196Y) or reduced (S201T) U46619 response. Finally, mutation of other residues directly adjacent to those described above (e.g. E190A and F200A) produced no detectable effects on either SQ29,548 binding or the U46619-induced response. In summary, these results identify key amino acids (in particular Asp 193 ) involved in TPR ligand coordination. These findings also demonstrate that TPR-specific ligands interact with different residues in the ligandbinding pocket. . 3 The abbreviations used are: TXA 2 , thromboxane A 2 ; TPR, thromboxane A 2 receptor; TM, transmembrane; C-EL2, C-terminal segment of the second extracellular loop; HEK, human embryonic kidney; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting; WT, wild type; EC 50 , effective concentration 50.