High Hepatic and Extrahepatic Mortality and Low Treatment Uptake in HCV-coinfected Persons in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study between 2001 and 2013
Word count: 4664 Number of figures and tables: 5 Supplementary table: 1 List of abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase AST, aspartate aminotransferase ART, antiretroviral therapy DAA, direct-acting antiviral drug HBV, hepatitis B virus HCV, hepatitis C virus IDU, intravenous drug user IFN, interferon MSM, men who have sex with men pegIFN, pegylated interferon PY, person years RBV, ribavirin SHCS, Swiss HIV Cohort Study SVR, sustained virological response ABSTRACT Background & Aims: The
... dscape of HCV treatments is changing dramatically. At the beginning of this new era, we highlight the challenges for HCV-therapy by assessing the long-term epidemiological trends in treatment uptake, efficacy and mortality among HIV/HCV-coinfected people since the availability of HCV therapy. Methods: We included all SHCS participants with detectable HCV RNA between 2001 and 2013. To identify predictors for treatment uptake uni-and multivariable Poisson regression models were applied. We further used survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression with drop-out as competing risk. Results: Of 12,401 participants 2107 (17%) were HCV RNA positive. Of those, 636 (30%) started treatment with an incidence of 5.8/100 person years (PY) (95% CI 5.3-6.2). Sustained virological response (SVR) with pegylated interferon/ribavirin was achieved in 50% of treated patients, representing 15% of all participants with replicating HCV infection. 344 of 2107 (16%) HCV RNA positive persons died, 59% from extrahepatic causes. Mortality/100 PY was 2.9 (95% CI 2.6-3.2) in untreated patients, 1.3 (1.0-1.8) in those treated with failure, and 0.6 (0.4-1.0) in patients with SVR. In 2013, 869/2107 (41%) participants remained HCV RNA positive. Conclusions: Over the last 13 years HCV treatment uptake was low and by the end of 2013, a large number of persons remain to be treated. Mortality was high, particularly in untreated patients, and mainly due to non-liver related causes. Accordingly, in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, integrative care including the diagnosis and therapy of somatic and psychiatric disorders is important to achieve mortality rates similar to HIV-monoinfected patients.