Tears as a Source of Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Graves' Orbitopathy

Diana Bajkowska, Małgorzata Szelachowska, Angelika Buczyńska, Adam Jacek Krętowski, Katarzyna Siewko
2022 Biomolecules  
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a poorly understood autoimmune manifestation of thyroid diseases most commonly associated with Graves' disease. Due to a lack of specific biomarkers and uncertain signs and symptoms, Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is challenging to diagnose early and treat effectively. Nowadays, there is great interest in searching for precise molecular biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, and clinical management. Researchers are keen to identify novel methods to predict
more » ... diagnose diseases and to monitor patient therapeutic response. Tears, due to their direct contact with the eye and the fact that lacrimal glands can also be affected by the disease, could give new insights into the mechanisms taking place in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) and reveal potential promising biomarkers. Tear fluid offers the possibility of the non-invasive acquisition of a sample with a high protein content, thereby attracting continuously growing interest in the discovery of novel biomarkers. This article provides an up-to-date overview of the various putative tear-fluid biomarkers that have been identified. In this review, we present the potential use of tears as a diagnostic fluid and tool to investigate the mechanism of ocular diseases and discuss the future research directions in this area.
doi:10.3390/biom12111620 pmid:36358969 pmcid:PMC9687490 fatcat:afbyjk5r4rc2bdm7tqhswb5ogu