Variability of the thermohaline structure and transport of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean based on NABOS (Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observing System) hydrography data
Ocean Science (OS)
Abstract. Conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) transects across continental slope of the Eurasian Basin and the St. Anna Trough performed during NABOS (Nansen and Amundsen Basins Observing System) project in 2002–2015 and a transect from the 1996 Polarstern expedition are used to describe the temperature and salinity characteristics and volume flow rates (volume transports) of the current carrying the Atlantic water (AW) in the Arctic Ocean. The variability of the AW on its pathway along the
... athway along the slope of the Eurasian Basin is investigated. A dynamic Fram Strait branch of the Atlantic water (FSBW) is identified in all transects, including two transects in the Makarov Basin (along 159∘ E), while the cold waters on the eastern transects along 126, 142, and 159∘ E, which can be associated with the influence of the Barents Sea branch of the Atlantic water (BSBW), were observed in the depth range below 800 m and had a negligible effect on the spatial structure of isopycnic surfaces. The geostrophic volume transport of AW decreases farther away from the areas of the AW inflow to the Eurasian Basin, decreasing by 1 order of magnitude in the Makarov Basin at 159∘ E, implying that the major part of the AW entering the Arctic Ocean circulates cyclonically within the Nansen and Amundsen basins. There is an absolute maximum of θmax (AW core temperature) in 2006–2008 time series and a maximum in 2013, but only at 103∘ E. Salinity S(θmax) (AW core salinity) time series display a trend of an increase in AW salinity over time, which can be referred to as an AW salinization in the early 2000s. The maxima of θmax and S(θmax) in 2006 and 2013 are accompanied by the volume transport maxima. The time average geostrophic volume transports of AW are 0.5 Sv in the longitude range 31–92∘ E, 0.8 Sv in the St. Anna Trough, and 1.1 Sv in the longitude range 94–107∘ E.