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Oil shales used in Estonian power plants to generate electricity and in oil production are of different quality. Different excavation methods in use and accompanying development processes are accompanied by various emissions that can pollute water and air. However, generation of waste as well as impact on land use are of greater concern than emissions into the water and atmosphere. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be one of the most attractive approaches to characterize sustainabilitydoi:10.3176/oil.2008.2s.08 fatcat:v4rfhjoscza5xnbdwyd7ttfpve