Combined mineral and geoheritage resources related to kaolin, phosphate, and cement production in Egypt: Conceptualization, assessment, and policy implications
Sustainable Environment Research
Societal and environmental importance of geological resources has to be fully considered, as well as their relevance to national heritage conservation, tourism development, etc. Geological resources are usually understood in the context of mineral extraction, energy production, and waste storage, but their significance to the society is also linked to their heritage value. As geological resources constitute a part of the natural heritage, they need conservation and sustainable exploitation.
... e exploitation. Evidently, mineral and geological heritage (geoheritage) resources often co-occur. Production of raw material via extraction from the interiors and subsequent processing determine certain heritage value. As a result, the combined mining and geoheritage resource should be recognized. Such a resource can be exploited for the purposes of mining and tourism. For instance, huge reserves and globally-important production of kaolin, phosphate, and cement in Egypt determine the existence of the combined mineral and geoheritage resources that can be doubly exploited (for mining and tourism) and conserved. Some sites relevant to mining and processing of the noted raw materials are potential geoheritage sites (in Egypt, these include the Kalabsha and El-Sebaiya quarries and the Medcom-Aswan cement factory). Management of miningrelated geoheritage is challenging, and disputes between different stakeholders are possible. Special policy related to simultaneous exploitation and conservation of the combined mineral and geoheritage resource has to be developed. In order to better evaluate the combined mineral and geoheritage resource, it is recommended to link its potential to provisioning and recreational geosystem services analogous to the similar ecosystem services.