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Two-stage network data envelopment analysis (DEA) is widely used to evaluate efficiency of different organizations with multiple operations processes or hierarchical structures. Although existing two-stage network DEA assumes two-stage systems resolve the inherent conflicts between two stages, the coordination effect between the two stages is usually ignored. Recently, the relation of two-stage network DEA to traditional "black box" DEA has been studied from the perspective of systemdoi:10.1051/ro/2022180 fatcat:zvhevwf73rac7osh3djkko6dx4